Gene list – Ipomoea nil

This is a translation of the list published on the Kyushu University site.  It has been very helpful for me to begin to understand some of the inheritance in the Japanese Morning Glory.  The wording and vocabulary is a bit awkward but some understanding can be gained.


Gene sign Linkage group Gene name (fame and Japanese name)
  Existence? Phenotype remark of mutation body
a-l 4 a-l, a-1 white 
  The white flower, the green stalk, as for the corolla there are times when barely it colors depending upon environment.
a-l f 6 a-1-flecked and a-1 sparrow group (flecked-1 and sparrow unevenness 1)
  The allele of a-1. There to be a small streak of anthocyanin in the corolla, as for the flower tube colored. Gardening sparrow unevenness or the time the rain 絞 with it is called.
a-2 5 a-2-white, a-2 white
? The same phenotype as a-1 white.









5 a-3-white, a-3 white
The same phenotype as a-1 white. Cloning it was done by Ida. The substance of the gene is the DFR-B gene which participates in anthocyanin synthesis.









5 a-3-flecked and a-3 sparrow group (flecked-2 and sparrow unevenness 2)
The allele of a-3. It can designate the streak of small anthocyanin as the flower. There is an occasionally streak even in the hypocotyl stalk. With the mutable gene it transforms often in all color. Gardening sparrow unevenness or the time the rain 絞 with it is called. By Ida, Tpn1 which is the En/Spm similar transposon has inserted in the DFR-B gene, because this spreads with the somatic cell, it bloomed and dividing was shown.
a-4 1 a-4-white, a-4 white
? The same phenotype as a-1 white.
ab   albescent and band white
  The cotyledon the white [tsu] [po] [ku] cotyledon handle is white. The 1st leaf especially is white, but the leaf which appears in afterwards becomes normal gradually, the plant body which is grown becomes normal. Existence power is low somewhat. As for fertility normal.









4 acuminate, nandina
The cotyledon handle like the forest wind becomes thick in the part where it comes in contact with the cotyledon, the shoulder is the [tsu] [te]. The crotch of the cotyledon is opened often. As for the lamina ripping deeply, the tip becomes pointed and the edge is turned up on the reverse side, often becomes the compound leaf. The corolla opens the aperture small in the funnel condition where the flower tube is a little long, the edge is turned up, occasionally rips irregularly. The flower tube is long a little. Fertility is low.
 Compound mutation of the willow becomes the straight filamentous leaf and is called the needle leaf.









  albino and Shirako
The cotyledon with most pure white, includes the chlorophyll very little. After the germinating 10-14 it withers at day.
am   amber and amber
  It begins the cotyledon and with bright/fresh yellow becomes light yellow afterwards, after the germinating does for a while and withers.
ar   anchor and 錨 leaf
  The stem being the joint of the lamina, becomes thick. But it is not crooked.









1 Blown-l and forest wind – l
The cotyledon handle becomes thick with the joint. Similar feature to also the stem appears. It does the lamina by the hand and, it becomes the kind of shape which is. The hetero individual fog and it is weak, but phenotype of the forest wind which it is clear is shown.
B-2 8 Blown-2 and forest wind – 2
It has been similar to former, but phenotype is a little weak.
B-3 5 Blown-3 and forest wind – 3
Cooperating with B-1 and B-2, it expresses the forest wind leaf.
b-4   bIown-4 and forest wind – 4
Phenotype does not do clearly from B-1 and B-2 and with the leaf top feature stops understanding.
bb-l 2 bobbed-l and bobbed hair – 1
The hair which it occurs in the plant body is short.
bb-2 1 bobbed-2 and bobbed hair – 2
The hair is short.
bd   broa, it is thick the leaf
  It has been similar to the common leaf where the waist of the leaf was thick, had the circular leaf gene in hetero, but leaf shape is disordered a little.
bf   buff and pale yellow seed coat
The brown where the seed coat is faint.
Bh 3 Bushish and gregariousness leaf
  Caespitose it does the leaf small. It has been similar to caespitose it is expressed with bs.
bk   broken and tear
  The leaf rips deeply and also the petal rips irregularly.









1 brown and brown seed coat
It is the brown where the seed coat is brighter than cocoa color.
br m 1 brown-mutable and mutability brown seed coat
The mutability allele of br.
bs 3 bushy, caespitose characteristic
  The leaf being small-sized, a little is low, caespitose does plant length weakly. As for fertility normal.
bu   bush, caespitose
  The branch vine doing caespitose, as for plant length approximately 60 centimeters. Fertility is low.









5 brim-vein and skin [nu] [gi]
  The vein is touching to the edge at the lower bottom of the wing piece. The flower is large a little. Many large flower 咲 systems have this mutation.









4 Blizzard-l and snowstorm – l
Cooperating with Bz-2 and Bz-3, it makes the Yuzen process pattern in the flower. Namely in hyperchromic area display hyperchromic streak in light-colored streak, or light-colored area the time is beautiful the facula which in at hyperchromic area the [ru]. As for those whose streak is thick there are times when it is called” the stripe”. It stabilizes relatively, but it shows unstable phenotype depending upon system, returns to all the color flowers.
Bz-2   Blizzard-2 and snowstorm – 2, 
The same to Bz-1.
Bz-3 10 Blizzard-3 and snowstorm – 3
The same to Bz-1.
bz-4   blizzard-4 and snowstorm – 4
  Inferior Yuzen process pattern.









3 c-l-white, c-l white
The colored stalk white flower, the flower tube is white always.
c-2 3 c-2-white, c-2 white
The same phenotype as c-1 white.
c-3   c-3-white, c-3 white
The same phenotype as c-1 white.









1 ca-white, white seed – l
White flower and white seed.
ca i 1 ivory, ivory seed
  With the allele of ca as for seed ivory. White flower, as for flower tube white. Green stalk.
cb 3 cb white, white seed – 2
  Cooperating with ca, it makes the white seed.









1 contorted, 捻 plum
In order the star condition section of the corolla (heavenly body) to possess the mechanical organization which includes the chlorophyll, here does not extend, the plum 咲 with becomes a little, can twist the flower often and blooms. The time unless you open by the hand, it does not bloom.
ch   chocolate and chocolate seed coat
  The seed coat is denser than the cocoa with the dark brown.
cl   curly and crimping
  As for the cotyledon as for the lamina it is crooked small, perpendicularly to the stem as been able to twist the epiphytic state of the leaf in 卍 condition, it is visible. Complete sterility.









1 crumpled-1 and strike – 1
There is a kind of strike which was pushed in into the leaf with the finger. Because of that there are times when the leaf a little becomes unfairness. It is inferiority, but the bamboo grass, random Jishi, the crepe, it is higher rank in the hand long peony.
cm-2 9 crumpled-2 and strike – 2
The same to cm-1.
cm-3 2 crumpled-3 and strike – 3
The same to cm-1.
cm-4 3 crumpled-4 and strike – 4
The same to cm-l.
cm-5 2 crumpled-5 and strike – 5
The same to cm-1.
cm-5D 2 crumpled-5-dominant, strike – 5 dominance
  The dominant allele of cm-5.
cn 8 chestnut and pale brown seed coat
  Pale brown seed coat.









2 cocordate and circular leaf
Leaf of cardioid.

co H








  cordate-Hederacea-leaf and [hederasea] leaf
The american morning glory (I. hederacea) with it was imported from the breeding mixed breed. It is constricted, cuts into the central lamina deeply, the re-fissure does the wing piece often. It is dominance in comparison with the wild type leaf type of the morning glory.
coa   cocoa and cocoa seed coat
  The brown (br) to be denser the chocolate (ch) a fainter seed coat.









2 crepe and crepe (cr 壬 e)
Finely the leaf of unfairness of the crepe area which has rugged is attached. The flower tube folding under, the flower of goblet condition is attached in order to spring out but there is many also a thing which becomes the normal circular 咲 depending upon nutrition condition and the like. The cotyledon is normal. As for bud pilosity.
cp r 2 reversed, stand 咲
X Inferiority, the flower is the stand 咲 with the allele of the crepe, but the leaf does not shrink.
cr 3 cream and cream
As for the flower streak of anthocyanin enters at cream area. As for the hypocotyl green, provision enters at the time. All the color flowers it returns normally with the mutable gene. The chain it does in Ry-2 not to be Ry-1. It is thought that blowing 絞 (sp) with it is identical mutation,









10 criss-crossed and stone pavement
The flower is cut off often to the base of the flower tube, crosses the thin petal mutually. In addition the normal flower it can bloom depending upon nutrition condition. Width of the calyx is wide.
Cse   Curved-sepal, bending calyx
The sepal has curved outside. The american morning glory (I. hederacea) with it was imported from breeding.









5 contracted and eddy
Body all plants has condensed, it becomes dwarf. The cotyledon and the leaf shape being plugged, the mesophyll are thick with the dark green. Because the flower garland and the seed are small, the petal is thick, blooming it is to be long and also two day blooming is called. The time the time mutable becoming, it returns normally.
cu 1 couple, married couple 咲
2 flower 梗 are caused in the leaf axil. Several days being late, you open the 2nd flower. The system whose penetrance is low is many.
Cy 3 cream yellow, cream yellow
The yellow to which the cream applies with ground colour of the flower of the blowing contraction. As for the flower streak of anthocyanin enters at cream area. As for the hypocotyl green, provision enters at the time. All the color flowers it returns normally with the mutable gene. The chain it does in Ry-2 not to be Ry-1. It is thought that blowing 絞 (sp) with it is identical mutation,
D 6 Dilute and decreasing color
It decreases color Bradley’s blue of standard flower color in amparas purple.
dc   deep-crumpled, it is deep strike
  Strike of the leaf is considerable.









3 deformed, the hand long peony
X As for the cotyledon the shoulder is hollow roundly, it cuts into the lobe shallow, the cotyledon handle is long. Wall thickness of the leaf the stem is long thin. There being a habit in the vine, the form is disordered. Also the flower is disordered, but when the stamen, is strong, the petalody it does also the female 蕊 and becomes the double flower. Presently it has become stopping kind.
df   deficient and defect leaf
  Occasionally the small facula enters in the cotyledon, there lacks irregularly. The facula appears often even with the leaf and the flower, there lacks.









6 drgonfly-l and dragonfly leaf – 1
The central lobe of the leaf long to become considerable, the wing piece on left and right 1 or 2. The wing piece those 1 the hoe shape leaf, calls those 2 the dragonfly leaf. The corolla is large somewhat, heavenly body is fixed exceeds 5 heavenly bodies. This mutation is introduced into many systems of the present large flower morning glory, (as for the cicada leaf the state beach leaf + dragonfly leaf).
dg-2 5 dragonfly-2 and dragonfly leaf – 2
The same to dg-1.
dg-3 1 dragonfly-3 and dragonfly leaf – 3
The same to dg-1.
dg-4 3 dragonfly-4 and dragonfly leaf – 4
The same to dg-1.
dh   dwarfish and atrophy
  With dwarf inside and outside plant length 38cm, with eddy characteristic as for cotyledon small size, sterility.









  dingy and [susuke]
  The dark flower color like mauve of Ridgway.









10 duskish-l, false persimmon – 1
It has been similar to persimmon color, but the light color. When the densest indigo and it becomes simultaneous, flower color is designated as vinaceous puple of Ridgway. duskish-1 includes the following kind of allele at least. high-ruled (the line is many), medium-ruled (the line normally), unstable-plain (unstable all color), stable-plain (stable all color). Various return mutations are caused.
 The brush mark 絞 system which is prized from the Edo period extending through Showa first stage perhaps, was thought that it is the unstable allele of this dk-1, recently, system of the brush mark 絞 reappeared.









  duskish-2, false persimmon – 2
The false persimmon – differing from 1, it has been similar to the persimmon. You can see the confusion of dk-1 and dk-2 in dissertation of former times.









9 delicate, bamboo grass
As for the cotyledon pulse is conspicuous and the lobe a little is thin, is many also a thing which is held. The leaf the meat is thin, the shoulder is hollow a little, the tip of the lobe becomes pointed. 5 fissures it does the petal, long the flower like the phosphorus dough it can bloom the flower tube. Fertility is low. Compound mutation of the willow is called thread Yanagiba, attaches the filamentous leaf.
dl m 9 delicate mutable, unstable bamboo grass
With the dominant allele of the bamboo grass, it transforms often normally.









6 duplicated, peony
The bud which had the calyx in the flower exists even repeatedly, the male female 蕊 lacks completely. After the blooming there are times when the bud inside blooms. Gardening thousand heavily 咲 ten thousand it is something which 咲 with is called heavily. It increases the petal and in order to make the flower luxurious, it is introduced into many systems. It belonged to C type of MADS-box gene which is copying factor and cloning it was done by the Nituta hill. Tpn-botan which is the En/Spm similar transposon had inserted in a certain allele.
dt   dotted, spot flower
  Spot of anthocyanin appears in the stalk and the flower. Mutable gene.
dv   defective, hypoalimentation
  The seed it loses weight extensively, the pale kind of brown which becomes dirty, as for weight of the seed which is dried half of normal ones, as for the seedling losing weight, rectangle is not prepared small. Existence power is weak somewhat, the fertile fog and is low.









2 dwarf-l and grove – 1
The cotyledon axis is short, the cotyledon is hard. The vine is thick, only inside and outside approximately 75cm extends. Internode is short. As for the corolla there is many a thing which becomes star. Because also the stigma is short, fertility is low.
dw-2 9 dwarf-2 and grove – 2
Grove – the same to 1.
dw-3 5 dwarf-3 and grove – 3
Grove – the same to 1.
dwy   dwarfy and false grove
  Because the vine is short, also internode is short, the leaf grows thick.









3 dusky, persimmon
Being something which expresses the flower color of generally known persimmon system, it changes flower color of the indigo into dark hyssop of Ridgway violet densely. The yellow coloring of leaves (y-1) with because of close sitting position and often you can see the system which the chain has been made firm.
e 7 extended, all the color characteristic flower tubes
  Light-colored characteristic (fainted) working, it designates the flower tube as all color.
e-ab   albescent-enhanced and band white accent
  Band white (albescent) the modifier which strengthens function. The meat to be thin it becomes small shape and white it increases the cotyledon.
e-cd1   contorted-enhancer-1 and 捩 plum strengthening 1st
  It strengthens the 捻 plum.
e-cd2   contorted-enhancer-2 and 捩 plum strengthening 2nd
  It strengthens the 捻 plum.
e-cm   crumpled-enhancer
  Strike is strengthened.
ef   early flowering and early flowering
  The flower blooms timewise quickly. Seeding in the beginning of May, as for system of the early flowering which blooms from 6 ends of the month is many, but whether those due to identical mutation it is unclear.
e-sp   speckled-enhancer
  Spot of the flower is made many.
e-Pj   projected-enhanced and projection accent
  Projection (Projected) working in the gene, the modifier which strengthens that. Big projection is caused in the leaf.
Ex 5 Expanded and marginal variegation enlargement
  The marginal variegation of the flower is expanded, color of star condition is left on the center of the result flower.









8 fasciated-l and fasciation – l
The growth point is formed by line, forms the stalk of ribbon base, with the gene regarding the fasciate stalk, is necessary for f-2 and f-3 3 homo- to become entirely heavily the expression. As for feature it is not in the cotyledon, but the stem of the first leaf this way because it extends long, you can distinguish. After width of the stalk becoming wide growing for a while. In addition the chain of f-2 and 20cM is done. Variability to be high the time, the time phenotype becomes normally. Fertility is low. Looking at the literature of the Edo period, it is thought the thing which happens from hole sparrow system, system of existence the hole sparrow, the system which unites Tatsuta is many. Also petrochemical is called gardening.









8 fasciated-2 and fasciation – 2
Cooperating with f-1 and f-3, it causes fasciation.









1 fasciated-3 and fasciation – 3
Cooperating with f-1 and f-2, it causes fasciation.
fa 5 fainted, light-colored characteristic
  Flower color is diluted. To be strong in dk-2 (false persimmon – 2) the chain it has done.
fd 1 faded, fading characteristic (halo)
The hypocotyl is green color, but a little there is a crimson taste in the place where it enters into the land of lower part. As for flower color when the extremely light color, it enters into the marginal variegation, the cloud wheel appears.
fd s   smeary, it becomes dirty thin, (blotch halo)
  Allele of 褪 color characteristic (halo). Flower color is diluted. When it works strongly, densely the indigo is designated as light violet-blue of Ridgway. When there is a marginal variegation, it can designate the wheel as inside that densely.









2 feathered and Jishi
Even in the cotyledon it being our in the leaf, the 卷 [ku]. The corolla rips often, the plumous small valve belongs and displays strangeness. Fertility quite is low, or it is sterility. It is sterility with the petal which is called the wind bell which the majority of the systems which presently remain the tube valve you snap and returns.

fe c








2 feathered-creased and random Jishi
The jishi inferior allele, a little there is ramming down in the cotyledon, but as for the leaf most level?, or there is a slight strike. As for flower Jishi. The reproduction organ with respect to appearance is visible normally, but fertility is low. Large number it is seen in the Edo period, but recently it had become stopping kind. Recently, the system which is close to random Jishi, has fertility reappeared.
fo 7 foliate, multi-blade characteristic
  It works as a modifier of the acrogenous flower, (terminal) strengthens. It extends long, the round small leaf caespitose does the petal which attaches the acrogenous flower, occasionally ramification does.
fol   folded, sack 咲
  The bud until the end does not open and, as for the anther doing not to tear open, sterility.
fr   featheroid and false Jishi
  The leaf is small, growth is bad. Also the flower to be small becomes plumous.
ft 5 faint, light-colored flower tube
  Working in flower color of red type, it designates the flower tube as band crimson.
g   glabrous, barren characteristic
  The hair mushrooms are few considerably in the plant body.









2 G1obose and potato industry
  As for leaf shape growth of the wing piece is bad with roundness. It is above flower garland large, often 6 heavenly bodies. When the state beach and group the leaf type which is brought together is called the Daikoku leaf, the dragonfly leaf joins to this, you call the god of wealth leaf.
gi   giant and enormous type
  The cotyledon and the leaf the dark green, the flower are large largely. Fertility is low considerably.
h-1 2 hair-l, hair bud characteristic – 1
  Cooperating with h-2 and h-3, it causes the hair in the bud. The hair is caused in the point of the especially bud.
h-1D 2 hair-l dominant, dominant hair bud characteristic – 1
  Hair bud characteristic – dominant allele of 1.
h-2 3 hair-2, hair bud characteristic
  The hair is caused in the point of the bud.
h-2D 3 hair-2 dominant, dominant hair bud characteristic – 2
  Hair bud characteristic – dominant allele of 2.
h-3 1 hair-3, hair bud characteristic – 3
  The hair is caused in the point of the bud.
h-3D 1 hair-3 dominant, dominant hair bud characteristic – 3
  Hair bud characteristic – dominant allele of 3.
hs   hardseed, hard seed
  The seed coat being hard, unless damage is done with the knife, it does not germinate.
hw-1 5 half-white-l, bottom white – l
Lower half of the flower tube is white.
hw-2 4 half-white-2, bottom white – 2
Lower half of the flower tube is white.
hw-3   half-white-3, bottom white – 3
Lower half of the flower tube is white.
i-1 5 intense-l, hyperchromic characteristic – 1
Flower color is made dense. Normal mode is designated as dark bluish of Ridgway violet.
i-2 8 intense-2, hyperchromic characteristic – 2
Flower color is made dense.
ig   interaxial green, internode green color
The hypocotyl and the stalk are green color, but to color the base of the branch and the flower 梗, as for the flower colored.
Lb   Large bract, large bract
The bract is large. From the American morning glory (I. hederacea) it was introduced.
Ln   Lined and stand stripe
  As for the flower a little irregular hyperchromic provision group enters at light-colored area. There is considerable mutation in streak.
lp 5 lilliputian and flattery
The hypocotyl and the cotyledon to be short greatly, the cotyledon meat be thick, involving, the dark green. The leaf being small-sized, the mesophyll is thick, rams down strongly. Also the stem and is short. You do not grow above state of the seedling.
 Separates from the parent wood of the eddy leaf phenotype has been similar to the” eddy dwarf” well, but whether or not identical mutation it is unclear.
ls   lobeless, non lobe
  As for leaf roundly complete sterility. With the mutable gene it transforms in the common leaf.
lt-1 3 light-l and tint – l
  As for hypocotyl and stalk light color, flower light color.
lt-2 8 light-2 and tint – 2
  Tint – the same to 1.
lt-3   light-3 and tint – 3
  Tint – the same to 1.









3 maple and Tatsuta
As for the cotyledon the pulse being conspicuous, as for the ear it lines up parallel soon. Partition doing, being similar to the leaf of the maple, usually 5 fissures it does the leaf. The corolla does 5 fissures widely. As for the female 蕊 imperfection, as for fertility it is low often.

m n








3 maple-narrow and small leaf
The tatsuta allele which is discovered recently. The cotyledon is smaller than the willow. As for leaf width of center of Yanagiba and thread willow. The corolla does to be thinner than the willow 5 fissures.
m p 3 maple-pine, pine needle
X Tatsuta allele. The cotyledon to be small very, as for the leaf being filamentous, the pine needle way. Stopping kind.
m pm 3 maple-pine mutable, divination 戻 characteristic pine needle
X Tatsuta allele. The cotyledon is small very, the leaf seems like the thread. You avoid the flower thinly. It returns a little normally with mutability. Stopping kind.

m w








3 maple-willow, willow
Tatsuta inferior allele. The cotyledon it is thin, pulse is conspicuous. The leaf is similar to the leaf of the willow. There are also times when the corolla does is produced 5 fissures thinly and the sawtooth first and becomes flower condition of the wild pink. The female 蕊 for imperfection it is sterility, but, the anther being a little normal, makes the pollen which has fertility. With mutability it transforms in Tatsuta, returns to rare normally.









4 magenta, darkness crimson
The basic mutation which changes flower color. As for the hypocotyl and the stalk darkness red, as for the flower darkness crimson, speaking in detail, rood’s violet of Ridgway, as for the hair mushroom white. Purple which is used widely in experiment of flower forming (violet) it is this flower color. purple (PR) with double mutation becomes red (red pink) with.









  miniature and Tsubame
As for the cotyledon especially being small-sized, the shoulder is hollow roundly, the lobe is shallow. Also the leaf being small-sized, small the star 咲 5 fissures it does the flower. Getting together, caespitose it does the flower to small tufted. Complete sterility. Temporarily, it had become stopping kind, but after the war it was rediscovered.
mi m   miniature-mutable and mutability Tsubame
X Tsubame mutability allele.









5 Margined-l and marginal variegation – 1
The marginal variegation – 2 and the marginal variegation – cooperating with 3, it expresses the marginal variegation. Because the normal morning glory the marginal variegation – 2 and the marginal variegation – includes 3, the marginal variegation flower and all the color flowers generally 3: It separates into 1.
Mr-2 4 Margined-2 and marginal variegation – 2
It works as a complementary gene in expression of the marginal variegation.
Mr-3 8 Margined-3 and marginal variegation – 3
It works as a complementary gene in expression of 覆 transportation.
Mr-4 1 Margined-4 and marginal variegation – 4
  Perhaps the complementary gene of marginal variegation expression.
Mr-5 3 Margined-5 and marginal variegation – 5
  Perhaps the complementary gene of marginal variegation expression.
Mr-f 3 Margined fluctuated and marginal variegation modification
  With the modifier of the marginal variegation, considerable wandering mutation is made to cause in the expression.
Mr-r 5 Margined reduced and marginal variegation restoration
  With the modifier of the marginal variegation, it declines the marginal variegation.
Mr-r s 5 Margined-slight, it is light the marginal variegation
  With the allele of the marginal variegation restoration gene, extremely the little marginal variegation is expressed.
nl   non-lobe and non wing piece
  The potato leaf (Globose) working, it makes the leaf which does not have most wing pieces. As for the leaf the shape which even the circular leaf of long taste it should call.
np   nipped knob heavenly body
  It reaches the point where apex of heavenly body barely pinches
op   oblique-peduncle, flower 梗 slanted coming out
The flower 梗 projects slantedly from the axis. The american morning glory (I.hederacea) from the character which is introduced.









8 pear, hole sparrow
Normally, it is the circular leaf of the long taste which does not have the wing piece, but the wing piece advances the time. In the cotyledon handle there is a slight forest wind way habit. The flower is small generally. Vis-a-vis Tatsuta higher rank.

p p








8 pear-petaloid, eightfold hole sparrow
With the double flower of the hole sparrow, it depends on the petalody of the stamen. The petalody starts from the filament. Allele of normal single 咲 hole sparrow.
pb   piebald, variegated seed
  The seed is black, but the yellow unevenness which occasionally becomes dirty is caused. Stamen sterility – 2 (sm-2) with the chain it has done.
pc 2 precocious and prematurity
  With the early rice the flower bud reveals from the base of the vine.
Pe   Pe-peroxidase, Pe per oxydase
As for Pe lC and Pe2C structural gene of per oxydase isozyme 1C and 2C. As for Pe O inactive type. It was researched & was identified by Yoneda.
pg   pigmy, dwarfishness
  It is small, quite the small-sized leaf caespitose does the cotyledon, does not expand the stalk almost. Sterility.
Pj   Projected and projection
  Working in the circular leaf, the small wing one way it puts out the projection. With the common leaf it is not that much clear.
pl 2 palmate and palmate leaf
  5 fissures it does the leaf. However the flower does not rip with the circular blooming.
pp   pipy, tube 咲
  The flower with like the tube is small. It returns normally with mutability.









5 purple, purple
The basic mutation which changes flower color. Densely the indigo of flower color is designated as Ridgway cotigna purple. The double mutation of mg becomes the crimson ~ pink flower. Being unstable, the system where the sector of blue enters is many, returns to occasionally wild type. According to Imai the stone pavement of the 10th chromosome (cs) with the chain it has done.









  petaloid, double flower
If by the petalody of the stamen double flower, the petalody starts from the anther and is low, the anther spits the pollen. When plant vigour is strong, the petalody becomes strong, at the growth latter term the petalody becomes weak and fertility high. The female 蕊 is normal.









  polymorphic, random chrysanthemum
The lobe of the cotyledon has been plugged, it becomes round. It diverges often and becomes the cotyledon of 3 leaves. As for the leaf ripping generally irregularly, the tip becomes pointed. As for the flower the number of heavenly bodies becomes many, becomes pleat condition, is cut off often irregularly. Fertility is low rather.









3 r-l-white, r-l white
As for the stalk as for the flower white, as for the flower tube when it colors and there is a case of white with green. The cord/code we did the CHS-D gene, Tpn3 having inserted we were shown in the mutation body by Ida’s group.
r-2   r-2-white, r-2 white
The same to r-1.
r-3   r-3-white, r-3 white
The same to r-2.









7 retracted-l and state beach – 1
The ear of the cotyledon being plugged, it is round. Also the lobe of the leaf is plugged, but the especially central lobe is considerable. The flower garland is large, heavenly body becomes in 6-7. Fertility is low. The present large flower morning glory includes all state beach genes.
re-2 1 retracted-2 and state beach – 2
State beach – the same to 1.
rt   root1et1ess, lateral root incompletion (non lateral root)
X The cotyledon has ripped to be shallow generally. When the bud is young, there is no lateral root, but it is thick afterwards, the clumsy lateral root where it bent is caused. Segregation ratio is low considerably, but this is because expansion of the pollen tube which includes rl is slow.
Rt 2 Restricted and trichome restriction
  Hair mushroom distribution of the calyx is restricted.









5 Rayed-1, car 絞 – 1
As for the flower just the star condition section being colored, as for other things becoming the halo, 褪 color it has done.
Ry-2 3 Rayed-2, car 絞 – 2
The cooperative gene of Ry-1 and Ry-1 and Ry-3 in order to express flower color to radial pattern.
Ry-3 4 Rayed-3, car 絞 – 3
The same to Ry-1.









  star and Kikiyou eddy
The cotyledon and the leaf are plugged, the eddy (contracted) being similar, but it is a little weak. As for the flower the star which has feature 咲.
Sa 3 Striated and brush mark 絞
  As detailed streak used the brush in light-colored area, it is distributed. As for streak hetero is conspicuous. As for flower tube white.
sb 5 shrubish, semi- caespitose vine
  As for the seedling as for the lobe of a little small, leaf as for the tip becoming pointed and leaf quality it is hard. The branch vine occurs from lower part, is a feeling of some caespitose.









2 semi-contracted,Or eddy 
The cotyledon and the leaf being thick somewhat, it is brittle. All organs show eddy characteristic a little and also the semi- eddy is called. The pile of the auricle is not about the eddy. 
sd   stunted,Cowering 
  Growth has cowered to be slow. The stalk cowers, as for the leaf from the wrinkle rips, as for the flower irregularly. Degree of minoru is low very. 
Sf   shaded off,Edge becoming dim 
  Flower color it becomes dim thin facing toward the edge. 
s-fm   sterile,Sterility
  The leaf and the flower are small. Also growth is bad. Also female stamen sterility. 
sg-1 5 stringy-l,Thread vine – 1 
  The stalk being long, seems like the thread. The lateral branch is not produced rarely. 
sg-2 3 stringy-2,Thread vine – 2 
  sg-1 when + [it coexists with sg-2], becomes the common stalk. 
sh   shrubby,Caespitose branch 
  Below plant length 45cm, the branch vine caespitose does densely with dwarf.
si 5 stiff,Metal reinforcement 
  Because heavenly body becomes hard, the flower is difficult to open. 
Sl   Stellate,Star flower color 
  The complementary gene which works in the homo- marginal variegation flower. The white part is expanded and flower color of star is left on the center of the corolla. 
sm-l 1 male sterile-l,Male sterility – 1 
  The anther is normal sterility, as for the ovule. 
sm-2   male sterile-2,Male sterility – 2 
  The leaf is small somewhat, also the flower form and is small. The anther usually sterility. 
sm-3   male sterile-3, Male sterility – 3 
  The flower is small, the anther is thin, the wrinkle depending, becomes the brown. 
sn   syncotyI,Cotyledon welding 
  2 cotyledons welding, it becomes goblet condition. Sterility. 









3 speckled-l,Blowing 絞 – 1 
Provision appears in the hypocotyl and the stalk, blowing was applied, the kind of spot which can do the pigment to the corolla. There is considerable mutation in the quantity of this spot. Tpn2 which is the En/Spm similar transposon in the CHI gene of anthocyanin synthetic route having inserted it was shown by Ida. 
sp-2 3 speckled-2,Blowing 絞 – 2 
  Blowing 絞 – the same as l. 
sp-d 3 speckled-decolorizer,Blowing 絞 decolorization 
  The same to the blowing 絞 restoration which is the modifier of the blowing 絞. But because spot of most entire [te] decolorizes, like just ground colour it is visible. 
sp-r 3 speckled-reduced,Blowing 絞 restoration 
  Modifier of blowing 絞. The hypocotyl and the stalk generally are green, but extremely there is a faint color in the base of the branch and the flower 梗. Ground colour of the flower appears yellow, is pale, to that with such as white the small point the time the time. 
sph   spheloid,Circular seed 
  As for the seed being small, with roundness, as for the seed coat the brown.
spl 3 pollen-sterile,Pollen sterility 
  Pollen sterility. 
spr 8 spiral tortion,Spiral winding 
  Stalk or stem spiral way 卷 [ku]. 
spt   septalobata,7 fissure leaves 
  Tatsuta modifier. The leaf is designated as 7 fissures. 









5 side-reduced-l,Nose leaf – 1 
Just the wing piece of the leaf does not be plugged, because it has roundness, the whole leaf becomes nose shape. 
sr-2 3 side-reduced-2,Nose leaf – 2 
Nose leaf – the same as l. 
st-1 6 striped-l,Streak – l 
  Streak appears irregularly in the flower of faint ground colour. 
st-2 8 striped-2,Streak – 2 
  Streak – it has been similar to 1. 
st-3 3 striped-3,Streak – 3 
  It has been similar to st-1 and st-2.
su-Cy 3 Cream yellow suppressor,Oppressing the cream yellow 
  Oppressing the color of cream yellow, it makes ground colour of white. 
su-dg 7 dragonfly-suppressed,Dragonfly leaf oppressing 
  Working in the dragonfly leaf, it makes the normal three 尖 leaves. 
su-g   g1abrous suppressed,Barren characteristic oppressing 
  Working in barren characteristic, it causes the normal pilose leaf. 
Su-Mr 5 Margined-suppressed,Marginal variegation oppressing 
  Expression of the marginal variegation is controlled and all the color flowers are caused. 
su-nl   non-lobe-suppressed,Non wing one oppressing 
  Working in the non wing piece the potato leaf and the non wing piece (non-lobe) at the time of existing, you reset to the normal potato leaf.
su-tw-1 2 tube color suppressor-1,Flower tube color oppressing – 1 
  Flower tube color oppressing – cooperating with 2, you hold down the expression of flower tube color and make white tube color. 
su-tw-2   tube color suppressor-2,Flower tube color oppressing – 2 
  Flower tube color oppressing – the same to 1. 
sw   shallow,Shallow lobe 
  As for the cotyledon being round, cutting into the lobe is shallow. Sterility. 
sz-1   size-1,Large flower characteristic – 1 
  The foliage is normal, but the flower becomes large. 
sz-2 5 size-2,Large flower characteristic – 2 
  Large flower characteristic – the same to 1. 
t 1 terminal,Acrogenous flower 
It extends long, the round leaf and the bud adherence does the flower 梗. There is no bract in the acrogenous flower. There is a small bract in the armpit natural flower. The acrogenous flower blooms first. 
ta   tardy,Stupidity 
The flower bud of time of beginning withers the entire [te]. It blooms afterwards.
tg 3 tinged,It is thin color 
  Flower color extremely is designated as faint color. 
tl   trilobata,3 尖 leaves 
  Tatsuta modifier. The tatsuta leaf is designated as 3 尖 leaves. 









5 tube-white-1,Tube white – 1
The flower tube is designated as white. 
tw-2 3 tube-white-2,Tube white – 2 
The flower tube is designated as white.
tw-3 4 tube-white-3,Tube white – 3 
The flower tube is designated as white. 









1 variegated-1,Variegation – 1 
The facula is displayed in the leaf, white provision is caused in the stalk. The occasionally facula appears to also the cotyledon. The seed coat with the black brown is a black stripe in the back. 
v-2 2 variegated-2,Variegation – 2 
Variegation – the same to 1. 
v-3 3 variegated-3,Variegation – 3 
Variegation – the same to l. 
v-r   variegated-reduced,Variegated restoration 
  There is a group whose pale green color is small in the leaf. Group entrance occasionally becomes reticular. The modifier which works in group entrance. It is due to the mutation of the plastid. 
vi   virescent,Light green 
The cotyledon and the leaf are pale, growth is late, existence power is weak. For undernourishment, flower and leaf small.
vt   velvet,Long hair seed coat 
  The long hair is caused in the seed coat.
Wd   White-dominant,Dominant white 
Oppressing flower color, it makes white.









  weeping,Weeping form 
The stalk 卷 the [zu], goes down perpendicularly from the flowerpot, loses negative geotropism. The large flower blooming (the state beach) Tianjing (the blue variegated cicada leaf) from it was discovered after the war, by the woven house person. Because of that many systems have the blue variegated cicada leaf. 
wl   wrinkloid,Wrinkle 咲 
  The wrinkle depends on the flower, but it is not considerable. 









  wrinkled,Reduction 咲 
The flower displays star with the reduction 咲, fertility is low. It transforms commonly with mutability. 
xt   xanthic,Bright/fresh yellow cotyledon 
The cotyledon with bright/fresh yellow, becomes rear light yellow. The time the mutable gene where the green group enters. Normally, without producing the leaf, it withers, but when the green group is a growth point, you grow. 









3 yellow-l,Yellow coloring of leaves – l 
Leaf and stalk yellow green color.









3 yellow mutable-l,Matsushima – l 
It is the yellow coloring of leaves, but for somatic mutation is possible the point and the group of green color to the yellow coloring of leaves. The allele of y-1. With mutability it transforms in the normal leaf. 
y-1m2 3 yellow mutablel-2,Pine bird – 2 
The allele of y-1. Matsushima – mutability is stronger than 1. 
y-2 3 yellow-2,Yellow coloring of leaves – 2 
Leaf and stalk yellow green color. 
ye   yellowy,False greenery 
  The cotyledon has the green group often with yellow green color. Also the young leaf has the green point with yellow green color, but when it becomes old, the green point expanding, it becomes like the common leaf. Mutability. 

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